Brazil is the largest coffee producer and exporter of the world and cultivates two species of coffee: Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora. The former is the Arabica coffee, demanded in high quality blends, and the latter is the Robusta coffee, also known as Conilon in Brazil and used in the instant coffee industry.
According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), the national coffee complex is estimated at 2.25 million hectares and is composed of a universe of approximately 290,000 producers, the majority of which are small producers spread in approximately 1,900 municipalities.
Last year, Brazil harvested 42.3 million 60-kg bags and registered an export record of 36.80 million bags – a 1.3% increase in comparison with the previous year. Arabica coffee production reached 32.05 million bags and conilon coffee totaled 11.19 million bags. According to the national food supply company – Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (Conab) — the average yield per hectare was 22.49 bags.
Coffee plantations are present in 15 Brazilian states: Acre, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, and São Paulo. Soil characteristics, altitude, thermal amplitude and climate determine the cup of coffee quality, therefore it is common to hear that there are several “Brazils” inside Brazil.
Coffee will have specific peculiarities as to taste, body, acidity and sweetness depending of the location and the characteristics of the relief where it is produced. Because of the Brazilian territory dimensions, it is common that in one State you will find different types of coffee. Minas Gerais is a good example. The State concentrates 50% of the national coffee beans production and has the following producing regions: Cerrado Mineiro, Mantiqueira de Minas, Sul de Minas, Chapada de Minas, Matas das Minas, Cerrados de Minas.